He was the youngest of five children, after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew (nicknamed "Mack"), and Willa Mae. , Robinson once told future Hall of Fame inductee Hank Aaron that "the game of baseball is great, but the greatest thing is what you do after your career is over. He was survived by his wife Delano, their three sons and three daughters, a son and daughter from previous marriages, twenty-five grandchildren, and eight great grandchildren. Those who do it will encounter quick retribution. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness. , That year, Robinson was one of 10 students named to the school's Order of the Mast and Dagger (Omicron Mu Delta), awarded to students performing "outstanding service to the school and whose scholastic and citizenship record is worthy of recognition.  Robinson, then 36 years old, missed 49 games and did not play in Game 7 of the World Series. ", However, Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players.  Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000. , Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players. In 1997, MLB retired his uniform number 42 across all major league teams; he was the first professional athlete in any sport to be so honored. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia.  Robinson accepted a contract for $400 per month.  He did, however, record a career-high on-base percentage of .436. Robinson also led the NCAA in punt return average in the 1939 and 1940 seasons. Jack had 16 grandchildren and as of 2014, he had 2 great-grandchildren.  After the party nominated Goldwater instead, Robinson left the party's convention commenting that he now had "a better understanding of how it must have felt to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany". Despite the success of these two Robinsons and other black players, the number of African-American players in Major League Baseball has declined since the 1970s. This guy didn't just come to play.  He left the tryout humiliated, and more than 14 years later, in July 1959, the Red Sox became the final major league team to integrate its roster. Because of his off-season activities, Robinson reported to training camp 30 pounds (14kg) overweight.  Sportswriter Dick Young, whom Robinson had described as a "bigot", said, "If there was one flaw in Jackie, it was the common one.  The house, at 8232 avenue de Gasp near Jarry Park, was Robinson's residence when he played for the Montreal Royals during 1946.  Pitching against Robinson was Warren Sandel who had played against him when they both lived in California. After Robinson left the army, Rickey, the then-GM of the Brooklyn Dodgers, saw Jackie play for the Kansas Monarchs.  In all, Robinson played 47 games at shortstop for the Monarchs, hitting .387 with five home runs, and registering 13 stolen bases. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson Stadium, which, because of the efforts of Jackie's brother Mack, features a memorial statue of Robinson by sculptor Richard H.  Since the Dodgers organization did not own a spring training facility, scheduling was subject to the whim of area localities, several of which turned down any event involving Robinson or Johnny Wright, another black player whom Rickey had signed to the Dodgers' organization in January. , Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me all I ask is that you respect me as a human being.  Although he failed to get a base hit, he walked and scored a run in the Dodgers' 53 victory. , Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death. Born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, Jack Roosevelt Robinson was the youngest of Jerry and Mallie Robinson's five children. ", Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump.  His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award (separate National and American League Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949). 1990. He scored more than 100 runs in six of his ten seasons (averaging more than 110 runs from 1947 to 1953), had a .311 career batting average, a .409 career on-base percentage, a .474 slugging percentage, and substantially more walks than strikeouts (740 to 291). He influenced the culture of and contributed significantly to the civil rights movement.  They went undefeated with four ties at 604. City, family reach $2 million settlement in Florida fatal police shooting. , In 1947, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues six days before the start of the season. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. He died at the age of 53 on Oct. 24, 1972. He came from a family of sharecroppers who lived in Cairo, Georgia. No black man had played in the major leagues since Moses Fleetwood Walker in 1884, but the Boston Red Sox nevertheless held a tryout at Fenway Park for Robinson and other black players on April 16.  On June 17, 1971, he was killed in an automobile accident at age 24. Robinson's character, his use of nonviolence, and his talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation that had then marked many other aspects of American life.  When Robinson later confronted the investigating duty officer about racist questioning by the officer and his assistant, the officer recommended Robinson be court-martialed.  In 1970, Robinson established the Jackie Robinson Construction Company to build housing for low-income families. Jerry Robinson deserted the family six months after Jackie was born.  Sisler taught Robinson to anticipate a fastball, on the theory that it is easier to subsequently adjust to a slower curveball.  His youngest son, David, who has ten children, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania.  Although he often faced hostility while on road trips (the Royals were forced to cancel a Southern exhibition tour, for example), the Montreal fan base enthusiastically supported Robinson. Jackie Robinson's Family.  He was elected on the first ballot, becoming the first black player inducted into the Cooperstown museum.  It honors Robinson with large quotations spanning the inner curve of the facade and features a large freestanding statue of his number, 42, which has become an attraction in itself. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an African-American. The Jackie Robinson Parkway was named in honor of the color-barrier-busting Brooklyn Dodgers baseball legend, who died in 1972, 10 years after his Hall of Fame induction.  On the football team, he played quarterback and safety. ", reached number13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version. On January 25, 1938, he was arrested after vocally disputing the detention of a black friend by police. , In October 1959, Robinson entered the Greenville Municipal Airport's whites-only waiting room. Robinson died at age 85 at a hospital in Pasadena on March 12, 2000.  He led the league in fielding among second basemen in 1950 and 1951. , The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena. , Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. , Later in spring training, after some less-than-stellar performances, Robinson was shifted from shortstop to second base, allowing him to make shorter throws to first base.  Upon finishing OCS, Robinson was commissioned as a second lieutenant in January 1943. Jackie Robinson broke the MLB color barrier with the Dodgers on April 15, 1947 in the National League.  Robinson's interests began to shift toward the prospect of managing a major league team. Died. After his father abandoned the family in 1920, they moved. During Jackie Robinson 's youth in California, his older . , After Robinson's commander in the 761st, Paul L. Bates, refused to authorize the legal action, Robinson was summarily transferred to the 758th Battalionwhere the commander quickly consented to charge Robinson with multiple offenses, including, among other charges, public drunkenness, even though Robinson did not drink.  Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.. , After receiving his commission, Robinson was reassigned to Fort Hood, Texas, where he joined the 761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion.  After World War II, several other forces were also leading the country toward increased equality for blacks, including their accelerated migration to the North, where their political clout grew, and President Harry Truman's desegregation of the military in 1948. " In 1947 or 1948, Reese is said to have put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Boston or Cincinnati. ", Rickey's offer allowed Robinson to leave behind the Monarchs and their grueling bus rides, and he went home to Pasadena.  He took a job as an assistant athletic director with the government's National Youth Administration (NYA) in Atascadero, California. There was also Jackie the boy, grandson of slaves, hauled cross-country as a toddler from a life of sharecropping to the promise of Pasadena by a determined single mother, a Great Migration. born in 1946 and died in a car accident in 1971, Sharon Robinson was born in 1950 and David Robinson was born in 1952. It was a painful search, derailed by racist brokers and neighbors who were afraid that selling to an African-American family even to Mr. and Mrs. Jackie Robinson would cause lower property values, block busting, or worse.  The New York Times wrote that Robinson, "doing that rare thing of playing himself in the picture's leading role, displays a calm assurance and composure that might be envied by many a Hollywood star.  On June 25, 2008, MLB installed a new plaque for Robinson at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorating his off-the-field impact on the game as well as his playing statistics.  The stadium also unveiled a new mural of Robinson by Mike Sullivan on April 14, 2013. " Woodward's article received the E. P. Dutton Award in 1947 for Best Sports Reporting.  Baseball writer Bill James, in The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, ranked Robinson as the 32nd greatest player of all time strictly on the basis of his performance on the field, noting that he was one of the top players in the league throughout his career.  Also in 1999, he ranked number 44 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 100 Greatest Players and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team as the top vote-getter among second basemen. 1. I think that's one of the reasons why Josh died so earlyhe was heartbroken.  Robinson was acquitted by an all-white panel of nine officers.  He became one of six national directors for Nelson Rockefeller's unsuccessful campaign to be nominated as the Republican candidate for the election. , A jersey that Robinson brought home with him after his rookie season ended in 1947 was sold at an auction for $2.05million on November 19, 2017. The price was the highest ever paid for a post-World War II jersey.. She became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Ellis. Robinson's older brother was a silver medalist at the Olympics. His father left the family a year later. Karl Downs. ", After Muir, Robinson attended Pasadena Junior College (PJC), where he continued his athletic career by participating in basketball, football, baseball, and track.  Although the Army's initial July 1941 guidelines for OCS had been drafted as race neutral, few black applicants were admitted into OCS until after subsequent directives by Army leadership.  The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number.  The Dodgers improved on their performance from the year before, winning the National League pennant before losing the 1952 World Series to the New York Yankees in seven games. ", Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. 1952).  Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates.  In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Banka black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem. The school also announced it would prominently display the number at all of its athletic venues. , Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952.  During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games. From gang member to world-famous baseball player, Jackie Robinson helped break down barriers for African American athletes, proving that they can not only compete, but excel, in a variety of sports.  In 2009, all of MLB's uniformed personnel (including players) wore number 42 on April 15; this tradition has continued every year since on that date. How these 3 hashtags from Black . Jesse Simms, the grandson of Jackie Robinson, is carrying on his family's legacy through Minor League Baseball.  In 1972, he served as a part-time commentator on Montreal Expos telecasts. Muchnick.  Other portrayals include: Robinson was also the subject of a 2016 PBS documentary, Jackie Robinson, which was directed by Ken Burns and features Jamie Foxx doing voice-over as Robinson.  Robinson had a batting average of .296 and 22 stolen bases for the season. Jackie Robinson married Rachel Isum in 1946. Dodgers sportscaster Vin Scully later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was.  Rickey was especially interested in making sure his eventual signee could withstand the inevitable racial abuse that would be directed at him.  He was not necessarily the best player in the Negro leagues, and black talents Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson were upset when Robinson was selected first.  After protests by heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis (then stationed at Fort Riley) and with the help of Truman Gibson (then an assistant civilian aide to the Secretary of War), the men were accepted into OCS.  He was not dissuaded, however, from addressing racial issues publicly.  From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation.  Robinson broke the baseball color line when he started at first base for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947. His wife Rachel was present for the dedication on September 15. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers management took a stand for Robinson. 42. Jack Roosevelt (Jackie) Robinson Born 31 Jan 1919 in Cairo, Grady, Georgia, United States Ancestors Son of Jerry Robinson and Mallie (McGriff) Robinson Brother of Edgar Robinson, Frank Robinson, Matthew MacKenzie Robinson and Willa Mae (Robinson) Walker Husband of [private wife (1920s - unknown) ] " Robinson retired from baseball at age 37 on January 5, 1957. " Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play. Born on January 31 51 Deceased on October 24 41 Baseball 44 Family tree Report an error Robinson Willis 1842 - 1870 Robinson Violet 1840 - Love Henry 1848 - Henderson Clara 1845 - 1920 McGriff Jacob 1805 - McGriff Rutha 1810 - Sims Henry 1845 - 1921 Pullens Lucy 1834 - 1904 Robinson Tony 1862 - 1932 Henderson Florence 1864 - 1951 McGriff Washington Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 - October 24, 1972) was the first African-American Major League Baseball (MLB) player of modern times. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal Standard as saying, "Jackie told me that he would be both delighted and honored to tackle this managerial post"although reports differed as to whether a position was ever formally offered. , Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, on October 3, 1951, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) concerning statements made that April by black athlete and actor Paul Robeson.  After playing his rookie season at first base, Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman. While at Fort Hood, Robinson often used his weekend leave to visit the Rev. 470 Jackie Robinson Family Photos and Premium High Res Pictures - Getty Images Images Creative Editorial Video Creative Editorial FILTERS CREATIVE EDITORIAL VIDEO 470 Jackie Robinson Family Premium High Res Photos Browse 470 jackie robinson family stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. He hit .256 and stole only 12 bases. Following an incident where Greenberg collided with Robinson at first base, he "whispered a few words into Robinson's ear", which Robinson later characterized as "words of encouragement. high-school baseball, "Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 19811989", "Jackie Robinson receives Congressional Gold Medal", "Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver Announce the California Hall of Fame 2007 Inductees", "Steele Field at Jackie Robinson Stadium", "Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson Daytona Beach, Florida", "Robinson 'stood up for what he believed', "Fearing gang violence, school forfeits a game", "Historic sports sites rarely take landmark status", "Residents Want To Turn Jackie Robinson's Brooklyn Home into City Landmark", "NYC Parks unveils renovated Jackie Robinson Park in Harlem", "A Closer Look at New York City's Historic Harlem Parks (Part II)", "The Jackie Robinson Commemorative Coin Set", "Mayor Giuliani Unveils the New Jackie Robinson Parkway Sign", "Jersey City, Journal Square, plaque at base of Jackie Robinson statue", "Jackie Robinson's old Montreal apartment to be commemorated by U.S. government", "UCLA Honors Jackie Robinson by Retiring #42 Across All Sports", "201112 UCLA Men's Basketball Media Guide", "UCLA Basketball Notebook: Wooden Won't Make Trip To Indianapolis", "The Numbers Game From 00 To 99, Which Player Would You Choose for the All-Time Southern California Roster?  Baseball was Robinson's "worst sport" at UCLA; he hit .097 in his only season, although in his first game he went 4-for-4 and twice stole home.  Growing up in relative poverty in an otherwise affluent community, Robinson and his minority friends were excluded from many recreational opportunities. Color is not one of them.  He accumulated 197 stolen bases in total, including 19 steals of home. The sign spotted Sunday in Queens featured a picture of Robinson, Major League Baseball's first African American . , On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32).  Ultimately, the Dodgers won the National League pennant, but lost in five games to the New York Yankees in the 1949 World Series. ", Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. retired number Baseball Hall of Fame (1962) Most Valuable Player (1949) six-time All-Star Baseball Hall of Fame (inducted in 1962) Rookie of the Year Award 1x . The reporter, concerned about protecting Hyland's anonymity and job, in turn leaked it to his Tribune colleague and editor, Stanley Woodward, whose own subsequent reporting with other sources protected Hyland. , As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB began honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day, which is an annual observance that started in 2004. They were the only black family on their block, and the prejudice they encountered only strengthened their bond. When Jackie was just a young infant, his father abandoned the family and left Mallie to raise the children alone. Karl Downs to be the athletic director at Samuel Huston College in Austin, then of the Southwestern Athletic Conference.  The New York Yankees honor Robinson with a plaque in Monument Park.  Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. , By the time of the court-martial in August 1944, the charges against Robinson had been reduced to two counts of insubordination during questioning. He was born during a Spanish flu and smallpox epidemic.  He also kept the Dodgers in contention for the 1951 pennant. He come to beat ya.  Robinson's breaking of the baseball color line and his professional success symbolized these broader changes and demonstrated that the fight for equality was more than simply a political matter. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles. In 1987, both the National and American League Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the "Jackie Robinson Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major League Rookie of the Year Award in 1947 encompassed both leagues). , In 1950, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman with 133.  Robinson was aghast: "Are you looking for a Negro who is afraid to fight back?  Twenty-five years after Robinson's death, the Interboro Parkway was renamed the Jackie Robinson Parkway in his memory.  As at Muir High School, most of Jackie's teammates were white.  The tribute was continued in 2008, when, during games on April 15, all members of the Mets, Cardinals, Washington Nationals, and Tampa Bay Rays wore Robinson's number 42. , Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. Between the tours, he underwent surgery on his right ankle. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, a sleepy Southern town near the Florida border. In high.  Robinson's performance soon rebounded. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. Based on . ", On November 22, 2014, UCLA announced that it would officially retire the number 42 across all university sports, effective immediately. The following January, approximately 1,000 people marched on New Year's Day to the airport, which was desegregated shortly thereafter.  Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father. For a general survey of the media reaction to Robinson at various phases of his career, In addition to Robinson, the 1949 All-Star game featured, Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award, History of baseball in the United States Racial integration in baseball, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 100 most influential people of the 20th century, The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts, List of first black Major League Baseball players, List of Major League Baseball annual stolen base leaders, List of Major League Baseball batting champions, List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders, List of Major League Baseball players who spent their entire career with one franchise, List of Major League Baseball players to hit for the cycle, List of Major League Baseball retired numbers, List of NCAA major college football yearly rushing leaders, List of NCAA major college yearly punt and kickoff return leaders, List of Negro league baseball players who played in Major League Baseball, List of University of California, Los Angeles people, Los Angeles Dodgers award winners and league leaders, "Boston Braves at Brooklyn Dodgers Box Score, April 15, 1947", "Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson: precursors of the civil rights movement", "In Pharaoh's Land: Cairo, Georgia 19191920", "White House dream team: Jackie Roosevelt Robinson", "Robinson a Baseball Star? He lost the weight during training camp, but dieting left him weak at the plate. The trade, however, was never completed; unbeknownst to the Dodgers, Robinson had already agreed with the president of Chock full o'Nuts to quit baseball and become an executive with the company.  He made his final public appearance on October 15, 1972, nine days before his death, throwing the ceremonial first pitch before Game2 of the World Series at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati. 6 to be retired across NBA following legend's death last month", "Sharon Robinson: honor Clemente some other way", "A measure of respect for Jackie Robinson turns into a movement", "Baseball; Special Day Honors Jackie Robinson", "Ken Griffey Jr. on Jackie Robinson and the decline of African-Americans in baseball", "Griffey, Jr., others to wear No.  He later became special assistant for community affairs when Rockefeller was re-elected governor of New York in 1966 and in 1971 was appointed to the New York State Athletic Commission by Rockefeller. , Robinson nonetheless became the target of rough physical play by opponents (particularly the Cardinals). 4. Sharon (born in 1950) had a successful . Rachel and their three children, Jackie Jr., Sharon and David, provided Jackie with the emotional support and sense of purpose essential for bearing the pressure during the early years of baseball.  The hectic travel schedule also placed a burden on his relationship with Isum, with whom he could now communicate only by letter.  Existence of the plot was said to have been leaked by the Cardinals' team physician, Robert Hyland, to a friend, the New York Herald Tribune's Rutherford "Rud" Rennie. Robinson broke the baseball color barrier, also called the color line, when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.  In late January 1937, the Pasadena Star-News newspaper reported that Robinson "for two years has been the outstanding athlete at Muir, starring in football, basketball, track, baseball and tennis. He had a big role in bringing racial . Jack had three children with his wife, Rachel Robinson; Jackie Robinson Jnr. , After his acquittal, he was transferred to Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, where he served as a coach for army athletics until receiving an honorable discharge in November 1944. Along with the museum, scholarships will be awarded to "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals.  Toward the end of his career, he played about 2,000 innings at third base and about 1,175 innings in the outfield, excelling at both.  The Cardinals players denied that they were planning to strike, and Woodward later told author Roger Kahn that Frick was his true source; writer Warren Corbett said that Frick's speech "never happened".  Among those with whom Rickey discussed prospects was Wendell Smith, writer for the black weekly Pittsburgh Courier, who, according to Cleveland Indians owner and team president Bill Veeck, "influenced Rickey to take Jack Robinson, for which he's never completely gotten credit. 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